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MLA Citation Guide 9th Edition: Recent Changes

MLA Citation Guide 9th Edition

Changes from earlier editions

Works Cited Changes from earlier editions:

  1. City of publication is no longer necessary. The publisher is enough except for some sources.
  2. Editor, translator, director, edited, etc. are spelled out.
  3. When you have no author, start with title.
  4. Articles (The, A, An) in names of journals are treated as part of the title. Include them when citing a periodical.
  5. Access date is optional (MLA Style Center suggests including it when no date of publication is available, or “if you suspect the work may be altered or removed” (“Access Date”).
  6. URLs are required for web pages and end with a period. Omit the http:// or https:// for websites but include it in DOIs (MLA 9th ed., 193-194).
  7. For online databases, use DOI if available. If DOI is not available, use the stable URL or the URL if a permanent link or stable URL is not available.
  8. Journal dates include month and season when cited. Give full date. The first letter in season (spring, summer, fall, winter) is now lower case.  
  9. If you have more than one author, use "et al."
  10. Use "p." for single page number and "pp." for page ranges. If a work in a periodical is not printed on consecutive pages, include only the 1st page number and a plus sign. Example: pp. 30+
  11. for consecutive pages, use pp. 19-21. 
  12. For volume numbers and issue numbers, precede those with "vol." and "no."
  13. Missing information is no longer indicated by n.p. and n.d. and they are no longer used. Use a question mark if the date is uncertain (MLA 9th ed., 186, 248). 
  14. Give the date in inverted form: 24 March 2021. 
  15. You can shorten URLs to the general site if it is excessively long (MLA 9th ed., 196).
  16. If an article is issued by season (spring, summer, fall, winter) the first letter is now lower case.
  17. If the source has no date, give date of access at the end: Accessed 6 Dec. 2021. "An access date for an online work should generally be provided if the work lacks a publication date or if you suspect that the work has been altered or removed" (MLA 9th ed., 211).
  18. Add http:// or https// before the DOI. "If the DOI is not preceded by http:// or http:// in your source, preceded the DOI in your entry with the following:" (MLA 9th ed., 194).
  19. Don’t use shortening services such as (MLA 9th ed., 196).
  20. If the publisher includes University Press, abbreviate to UP. "if the name of an academic press contains the words University and Press or a foreign language equivalent, use the abbreviation UP or the equivalent in the publisher's name." (MLA 9th ed., 172).