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Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS)

This Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) guide covers the author-date system.


Please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style for further information on citing books, eBooks or parts of books.

Books with one author

Format: Invert the name in the reference list and italicize the book title.

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Year of Publication. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name. 

Reference list entry:

Nojeim, Michael J. 2004. Ghandi and King: The Power of Nonviolent Resistance. Westport, CT: Praeger.

In-text citation: To cite a specific passage, a page number or range of numbers is included in a text citation, separated from the year by a comma.

(Nojeim 2004, 92)

Books with two authors

Format: Only the first name is inverted in the reference list. 

Author’s Last Name, First Name, and First Name Last Name. Date of Publication. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Reference list entry:

Kristof, Nicholas, and Sheryl WuDunn. 2020. Tightrope: Americans Reaching for Hope. New York: Knopf.

In-text citation:

(Kristof and WuDunn, 2020, 103)

Books with three or four authors

Format: Use "and" before the last author and use commas to separate the authors in the Reference List. 

Author’s Last Name, First Name, First Name Last Name, and First Name Last Name. Date of Publication. Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher's Name.

Reference List Entry:

Emerson, Robert M., Rachel Fretz, and Linda L. Shaw. 2011. Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes. Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.

In-text citation Entry:

(Emerson, Fretz, and Shaw 2011, 50)

Books with four authors:
Use all authors names in the Reference List. For the in-text citation, use the last name of the 1st author followed  by et. al. 

(Habib et al. 2021, 24-25)


"For eBooks, include the URL or the name of the database in the reference list. For other types of e-books, name the format  application/device at the end of the citation (Kindle). If no page numbers are available, cite the section title or a chapter or other number in the text, if any (or simply omit. " CMOS

Format: Include the provider of the book, the URL, or e-book application/device at the end of the citation.
Reference list entry:

Schweid, Richard. 2016. Invisible Nation: Homeless Families in America. Oakland: University of California Press. Ebscohost. 

In-text citation: 

(Schweid 2016, 51)